Jumat, 12 Juni 2009


Greeting (also called accosting) is an act of communication in which human beings (as well as other members of the animal kingdom) intentionally make their presence known to each other, to show attention to, and to suggest a type of relationship or social status between individuals or groups of people coming in contact with each other. While greeting customs are highly culture- and situation-specific and may change within a culture depending on social status and relationship, they exist in all known human cultures. Greetings can be expressed both audibly and physically, and often involve a combination of the two. This topic excludes military and ceremonial salutes but includes rituals other than gestures.

Greetings are often, but not always, used just prior to a conversation.

Some epochs and cultures have had very elaborate greeting rituals, e.g., greeting of a king.

Secret societies have clandestine greeting rituals that allow members to recognize common membership.


Person A: “Hi, my name is Intan. It’s nice to meet you.”

Person B: “I’m Wendy. It’s a pleasure to meet you, Tan.”
Person A: “What do you do for a living Wen?”

Person B: “I work at the bank.”

Two friends meeting

Friends often say "Hi" to each other. Then they often ask a general question, such as "How are you?" or "How are things?" or "How's life?"

The reply to this question is normally positive.

"Fine thanks, and you?"

"Fine thanks, what about yourself?"

"Not bad." Or "Can't complain."

Greeting people you don't know

You can use "Hello" with people you don't know, but a more formal greeting is "Good morning / afternoon / evening."

The other person normally replies with the same greeting as you have used and then makes polite conversation, such as "How was your trip?" or "Did you find our office easily?"
Introducing yourself
How do you introduce yourself??
-Let me introduce myself, my name is Intan Ayu…
-Hello, I’m Intan Ayu…
-Hi, I’m Intan Ayu. You can call me Intan.
-Hello, my name is Intan Ayu….

At an informal party

"Hello, I'm Maria." Or "Hello, my name's Maria."

The reply could be:

"Hi, I'm Sarah." Or "Hello Maria, I'm Sarah." Or "Nice to meet you, I'm Sarah."

At work-related events

"I'd like to introduce myself. I'm Maria, from english@home."

Or, "Let me introduce myself. I'm Maria from english@home."

The reply could be:

"Nice to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations."

"Pleased to meet you. I'm Peter Mitchell, from Mitchell Creations."

"How do you do? I'm Peter Mitchell from Mitchell Creations."
Introducing other people

Introducing a friend to a work colleague

"Sarah, have you met my colleague John?"

"Sarah, I'd like you to meet my colleague John."

Sarah says:

"Pleased to meet you, John." Or "Nice to meet you, John."

John could say:

"Nice to meet you too, Sarah." Or "Hello, Sarah."

Introducing clients

"Mr Mitchell, I'd like to introduce you to my manager, Henry Lewis."

Mr Mitchell could then say:

"How do you do?" and Henry Lewis also says "How do you do?"

Or Mr Mitchell could say:

"Pleased to meet you." Or "Good to meet you."

Speaking Tip

"How do you do?" is quite formal for British English speakers and the reply to this question is to repeat the phrase, "How do you do?" (as strange as that may sound!)

At a more informal party

When you introduce two of your friends to each other, you can simply say, "John, this is Sarah."
Cultural considerations

At work, one person may have higher status - your boss, or a client, for example. It's polite to address them as Mr / Ms until the situation becomes more informal.

If someone says, "Please call me (Intan)", you know you can use first names. If someone uses your first name, you can use their first name too.

People in European and English-speaking cultures often shake hands when they meet someone for the first time.

How do you end your conversation?????????

Well, I should be going now. See you.
I’m sorry, but I have to go now. It’s been nice talking with you. See you later..
Well, I must be off now. I’ll talk to you later!
Ups.., look at the time! Sorry, I can’t chat right now. I have to go.

The finally word of conversation…
See you later/ tomorrow/ next week, etc..
Have a good time.
Good bye..
Bye bye..
Be careful, take a care.
Good bye, make a call, will you?

* Don't forget to smile! :-)

Gratitude, Compliment, and Congratulation

Gratitude, the way to said thank you to other people.

* è To express gratitude you can say :
* * Thank you
* * I’m greatful
* * I want to thank …
* *I want to express my gratitude to …

* * I keep forgetting to thank you for ..

* è Respone of expressing :
* * You are welcome
* * Don’t mention it
* * Not at all
* * It was nothing at all
* * No problem
* * Glad to be help

Congratulation, to said “good” for other people.

è To express congratulation you can say :

* Let me congratulate you

* Congratulation on your success

* Good

* That’s great

* Isn’t that wonderful

* How fortunate

* Splendid

* Prety good

è Respone of expressing :

* Thank you

* Thanks, I needed that

* That’s very kind of you

* You’ve made my day

* Some to you


Example congratulation :

Dialogue 1 :

Ais : Who won the football match yesterday?

Ari : Our team did. We won three to one

Ais : Congratulation. I’m glad to hear it

Ari : Thank you

Dialoge 2:

Milda : Happy birthday, Marry. Many happy return of the day

Eri : Thank you, Milda. You are the first me who congratulates me

Milda : Oh realy? Here is a little present for you. I hope you like it.

Eri : Thank you very much. You are realy my best friend.

Compliment, to give praising to other people. Some people use compliment to “better up” some day or to flatter in order increase good will.

You compliment some one, for example :

* Ø On his / her general appearance

* Ø If you notice something new about the person’s appearance

* Ø When you visit someone’s

* Ø House for the first time

* Ø When other people do their best

è Expressing :

* What a nice dress

* You look great

* You look very nice

* Good grades

* Excellent

* Nice work

Gratitude, thankfulness, or appreciation is a positive emotion or attitude in acknowledgment of a benefit that one has received or will receive. The experience of gratitude has historically been a focus of several world religions, and has been considered extensively by moral philosophers such as Adam Smith. The systematic study of gratitude within psychology only began around the year 2000, possibly because psychology has traditionally been focused more on understanding distress rather than understanding positive emotions. However, with the advent of the positive psychology movement, gratitude has become a mainstream focus of psychological research. The study of gratitude within psychology has focused on the understanding of the short term experience of the emotion of gratitude (state gratitude), individual differences in how frequently people feel gratitude (trait gratitude), and the relationship between these two aspects.

Rabu, 03 Juni 2009

Giving Instructions

Asking for Instructions

How do you (do this)?

How do I . . . ?

What is the best way to . . . ?

How do I go about it?

What do you suggest?

How do you suggest I proceed?

What is the first step?

Giving Instructions


First, (you) . . .

Then, (you) . . .

Next, (you) . . .

Lastly, (you) . . .

Starting out

Before you begin, (you should . . .)

The first thing you do is . . . .

I would start by . . .

The best place to begin is . . .

To begin with,


After that,
The next step is to . . .

The next thing you do is . . .

Once you've done that, then . . .

When you finish that, then . . .


The last step is . . .

The last thing you do is . . .

In the end,

When you've finished,

When you've completed all the steps,

Recount text


The purpose of a recount is to list and describe past experiences by retelling events in the order in which they happened (chronological order). Recounts are written to retell events with the purpose of either informing or entertaining their audience (or both).

Types of Recount

* Personal Recount
These usually retell an event that the writer was personally involved in.

* Factual Recount
Recording an incident, eg. a science experiment, police report.

* Imaginative Recount
Writing an imaginary role and giving details of events, eg. A day in the life of a pirate; How I invented...

Features of Recounts

* focuses on individual participants/events


* the recount has a title, which usually summarises the text
* specific participants (Mum, the crab)
* The basic recount consists of three parts:
1. the setting or orientation - background information answering who? when? where? why?
2. events are identified and described in chronological order.
3. concluding comments express a personal opinion regarding the events described
* details are selected to help the reader reconstruct the activity or incident (Factual Recount)
* the ending may describe the outcome of the activity, eg. in a science activity (Factual Recount)
* details of time, place and incident need to be clearly stated, eg. At 11.15 pm, between Reid Rd and Havelock St a man drove at 140 kms toward the shopping centre (Factual Recount)
* descriptive details may also be required to provide information, eg. He was a skinny boy with a blue shirt, red sneakers and long tied back hair (Factual Recount)
* includes personal thoughts/reactions (Imaginative Recount)


* is written in the past tense (she yelled, it nipped, she walked)
* frequent use is made of words which link events in time, such as next, later, when, then, after, before, first, at the same time, as soon as she left, late on Friday)
* recounts describe events, so plenty of use is made of verbs (action words), and of adverbs (which describe or add more detail to verbs)
* details are often chosen to add interest or humour to the recount.
* use of personal pronouns (I, we) (Personal Recount)
* the passive voice may be used, eg. the bottle was filled with ink (Factual Recount)